La relevancia del referendo escocés para Puerto Rico

El pueblo de Escocia ayer celebró un referendo para escoger entre preservar la unión de Escocia con los demás países del Reino Unido (que incluyen a Inglaterra, Gales e Irlanda del Norte) o adoptar la independencia. Una mayoría de los electores rechazó la independencia y favoreció la permanencia de Escocia en el Reino Unido.

Este suceso surge ya que en el 2012 el primer ministro británico David Cameron y el ministro principal escocés Alex Salmond acordaron celebrar un referendo vinculante para decidir el futuro político de Escocia. Dos años después, el Parlamento del Reino Unido cumplió con lo prometido.

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Mientras tanto, en Puerto Rico, bien gracias. El Congreso de los Estados Unidos no le ha brindado a los puertorriqueños un proceso vinculante sobre estatus en los 116 años desde que asumió soberanía sobre Puerto Rico. El último proyecto de ley sobre estatus para Puerto Rico, el H.R. 2000 del Comisionado Residente Pedro Pierluisi, no recibió atención del Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Cámara de Representates federal y, ante la proximidad de las elecciones 2014, murió engavetado.

La ironía no podría ser mayor. El Reino Unido, cuyo abuso colonial propició la creación de los Estados Unidos, ayer dio cátedra democrática. Mientras, el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, sucesor de las 13 colonias que lucharon por su libertad, atenta contra su propia imagen como portaestandarte global de la democracia al mantener a Puerto Rico en estado de coloniaje.

ballot_paperCabe resaltar que la papeleta de la votación escocesa fue un monumento a la simpleza y la eficacia. Como vemos en la foto a la izquierda, la misma le preguntó a los electores: “Debería Escocia ser un país independiente?”, sí o no. Así de sencillo. La papeleta no incluyó opciones engañosas (“ELA soberano“) o inválidas  (“ELA mejorado“). Tampoco incluyó descripciones innecesariamente complejas.

Al considerar la simpleza de la papeleta, no sorprende entonces la claridad del resultado, en el cual el 55% de los electores escoceses rechazaron la independencia. Sin duda, las consultas más simples producen los resultados más contundentes. Esto porque no dejan espacio para idear conjeturas sobre la intención del elector.

Por otro lado, la reacción de ciertos medios periodísticos en Puerto Rico a los resultados del referendo de Escocia contrastan con su cobertura de los resultados del plebiscito de estatus del 2012. La terminología usada es particularmente reveladora. Sobre Escocia, El Nuevo Día consideró que los escoceses “rechazaron por amplio margen la independencia” y que el “No” “arrasó” al obtener un 55 por ciento. Todavía esperamos que apliquen adjetivos de tal contundencia para describir la victoria del “No” (54 por ciento de los votos) y de la estadidad (61 por ciento) en Puerto Rico. Asimismo, el reportaje sobre Escocia tampoco incluye editoriales del periodista José Delgado adjudicando papeletas en blanco como votos en contra de la opción de estatus que el Grupo Ferré Rangel rechaza.

A la par, resulta irónico que el presidente demócrata Barack Obama celebró el voto unionista de los escoceses, mientras que durante su presidencia ha callado sobre los derechos civiles de 3.8 millones de ciudadanos americanos en Puerto Rico. Obama incluso se comprometió en el 2009 a resolver el problema de estatus de Puerto Rico durante su primer término, promesa que incumplió.

Screen Shot 2014-09-19 at 7.26.43 PMEs indignante que nuestro presidente opine sobre el estatus político de un país foráneo pero ignore el reclamo de estadidad plasmado en las urnas por sus propios conciudadanos el 6 de noviembre de 2012. Al fin y al cabo, el último presidente en apoyar públicamente la estadidad fue el republicano George H. W. Bush, precedido este por los también republicanos Ronald Reagan y Gerald Ford.

Finalmente, del ejemplo de Escocia se desprende que si a los puertorriqueños se nos consulta nuevamente sobre el estatus de Puerto Rico, aún con el claro mandato de noviembre del 2012, merecemos un proceso vinculante con opciones claras: estadidad o independencia. La presentación de estas dos opciones en un referendo nos permitirá a los puertorriqueños conformar un mandato mayoritario y contundente que resuelva nuestro eterno problema de estatus.

En fin, el ahora ex ministro principal escocés Salmond indicó que la votación de ayer decidió el asunto de la independencia para Escocia por una generación. Tarde o temprano Escocia celebrará otra consulta. Mientras tanto, luchemos para que los puertorriqueños podamos decidir nuestro futuro antes de que Escocia se nos adelante nuevamente y haga lo propio.

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NOTA: José Cabrera Costas (@JCabreraCostas) es abogado, notario público y propietario de Cabrera Costas Law Office. En el 2007 reactivó el Puerto Rico Statehood Students Association (PRSSA) y fue su Presidente Nacional hasta el 2009.  Luego lanzó el Proyecto Estrella para orientar sobre la estadidad de cara al plebiscito de estatus del 2012. Ha discutido sobre la estadidad en programas como The Stream de Al Jazeera America.

Gobierno de Puerto Rico combate mandato del Pueblo con fondos públicos

Ayer trascendió mediante el blog soyPATRIA que la Administración de Asuntos Federales de Puerto Rico (PRFAA, por sus siglas en inglés) utiliza fondos públicos para cabildear en Washington, DC en contra del mandato que dio el Pueblo en el pasado plebiscito en rechazo al estatus territorial de Puerto Rico y a favor de la estadidad.

GOBIERNO DE PUERTO RICO MANIPULA RESULTADOS DEL PLEBISCITO

Juan Eugenio Hernández Mayoral, exsenador por el Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) y actual Director Ejecutivo de PRFAA, cursó una carta con fecha del 15 de mayo de 2013 a miembros del Congreso cuyo contenido manipula los resultados del plebiscito del pasado 6 de noviembre.

OPRIME EL SIGUIENTE ENLACE PARA DESCARGAR LA CARTA: Carta de PRFAA 

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Carta de Juan Eugenio Hernández Mayoral

La carta de Hernández Mayoral fundamenta su argumento en la Resolución Concurrente Núm. 24 que el pasado 14 de mayo de 2013 aprobó la Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico controlada por el Partido Popular Democrático.

En su misiva, Hernández Mayoral asegura que el contenido de la Resolución representa la posición oficial del Gobierno de Puerto Rico bajo el Gobernador Alejandro García Padilla sobre los resultados del plebiscito.

A saber, en dicha consulta una mayoría de 54% rechazó el actual estatus territorial de Puerto Rico y una mayoría de 61% favoreció la estadidad como estatus permanente para Puerto Rico.  Así lo hizo constar la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones mediante certificación.

Posteriormente la Casa Blanca de Barack Obama reconoció que los resultados del plebiscito fueron claros y que una mayoría de los electores puertorriqueños escogió la estadidad.

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Politico.com reporta sobre la postura de Casa Blanca ante el plebiscito.

Sin embargo, la Resolución de la Asamblea Legislativa increíblemente asevera que los resultados del plebiscito no fueron claros.

Asimismo, la Resolución indica que el Pueblo de Puerto Rico rechazó la estadidad.  Para llegar a esta conclusión, la Resolución indica que en los resultados se deben contar las papeletas en blanco como votos en contra de la estadidad.

Así, el Partido Popular Democrático pretende diluir el porcentaje mayoritario de 61% que recibió la estadidad y reducirlo a un ficticio 44%.  Es mediante este proceso de alquimia matemática que la Asamblea Legislativa aduce que un 56% de los electores rechazó la estadidad.

No obstante esta posición fantasiosa e inverosímil , las pretensiones de la Asamblea Legislativa chocan con el derecho vigente en Puerto Rico.

PAPELETAS EN BLANCO NO CUENTAN

El Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico estableció en el caso Suárez Cáceres v. Comisión Estatal de Elecciones (2009 TSPR 97) que las papeletas en blanco no se cuentan en los resultados.  Esto porque las papeletas en blanco no son votos y por tanto no se incluyen en los resultados oficiales de una elección o consulta.

El juez asociado Erick Kolthoff Caraballo, quien escribió la opinión del Tribunal, nos indica:

La intención de un elector que deposita su papeleta en blanco […] es expresar su inconformidad, ya sea con las propuestas presentadas o con los candidatos disponibles en ésta. No obstante, tal voto de ninguna manera puede ser contado para efectos de influir o afectar el resultado de una elección, referéndum o plebiscito, entre otros eventos electorales.

Contrario a lo que propone la Asamblea Legislativa popular, el Tribunal Supremo dictaminó que no puede utilizarse la papeleta en blanco de un elector “para que se cuente –ya sea a favor o en contra de candidato u opción alguna- si su intención claramente ha sido lo contrario.”

Como vemos, la opinión de la Asamblea Legislativa y del gobierno de turno de que las papeletas en blanco se deben adjudicar como votos en contra de la estadidad no tiene base legal.

Cabe resaltar que la decisión en Suárez Cáceres v. CEE surgió como resultado de una demanda incoada por Jorge Suárez Cáceres, actual senador y Secretario General del Partido Popular Democrático, quien irónicamente pidió que no se contaran papeletas en blanco emitidas en las elecciones generales de 2008.

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Secretario General del PPD Jorge Suárez Cáceres

Suárez Cáceres entonces exigió que se descartaran las papeletas en blanco para él ocupar el último escaño senatorial disponible para el PPD al aplicar la disposición constitucional sobre minorías.  El Tribunal Supremo resolvió a su favor y permitió su elección como senador, quedando José Luis Dalmau Santiago fuera del Senado.

Por otro lado, discutiendo el asunto de las papeletas en blanco, el exgobernador Aníbal Acevedo Vilá ha sido categórico sobre la invalidez de dichas papeletas.  El exmandatario popular aprovechó una entrevista con Univisión justo antes del plebiscito del 2012 para recalcar que “una papeleta en blanco no se cuenta”.

Acto seguido, Acevedo Vilá exhortó a los electores del PPD a no dejar la papeleta plebiscitaria en blanco y a votar por el estatus territorial en la primera pregunta y por la libre asociación en la segunda.

ACTUACIONES DEL GOBIERNO ATENTAN CONTRA LA DEMOCRACIA

Las ejecutorias de Hernández Mayoral y la oficina de PRFAA en contra de los resultados del plebiscito constituyen actos ilegales que atentan contra la democracia en Puerto Rico.

Por medio de esta dependencia gubernamental, el Gobernador Alejandro García Padilla utiliza fondos públicos para hacer falsas representaciones sobre los resultados del plebiscito ante el gobierno federal y el Congreso.  Así, García Padilla se burla del electorado puertorriqueño y socava el mandato plebiscitario del mismo Pueblo que lo eligió gobernador.

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Gobernador Alejandro García Padilla

Además de atentar contra los principios más básicos de la democracia, la Administración García Padilla demuestra que “le vale” el estado de derecho en Puerto Rico y las decisiones del Tribunal Supremo.

Sin embargo, esto no debe sorprender ya que las ramas políticas controladas por el Partido Popular Democrático recientemente han desarrollado un patrón nefasto de ignorar las decisiones del Tribunal Supremo que no le favorecen.

El caso omiso del Gobierno de Puerto Rico al precedente de Suárez Cáceres v. CEE se suma a la recientes declaraciones del Presidente del Senado Eduardo Bhatia de que ignorará al Tribunal Supremo y las expresiones del Gobernador Alejandro García Padilla llamando “enemigos interiores” a miembros del alto tribunal.

Varios comentaristas han aseverado que estas actuaciones están propiciando una incipiente crisis constitucional en Puerto Rico.

A RESPETAR EL MANDATO DEL PUEBLO

Ante estas actuaciones ilegales y antidemocráticas del Gobierno de Puerto Rico, el movimiento estadista espera que el Comisionado Residente y Presidente del Partido Nuevo Progresista (PNP) Pedro Pierluisi haga valer su advertencia previa de que “estamos listos para acudir a los tribunales a la primera gestión que realicen con fondos públicos en contra del resultado plebiscitario”.

Asimismo, los puertorriqueños no podemos permitir que la Administración García Padilla utilice nuestro dinero para negarnos el rumbo que escogimos como Pueblo.

El Gobierno de Puerto Rico tiene una obligación legal y moral de hacer valer los resultados del plebiscito.  El gobierno de turno podrá diferir de la opinión del Pueblo en cuanto al futuro estatus de Puerto Rico, pero no puede obstaculizar el cambio de estatus que ese Pueblo pidió en las urnas.

Acta de admisión de Alaska

Alaska Statehood Act; July 7, 1958
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An act to provide for the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union

SEC. 1.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, subject to the provisions of this act, and upon issuance of the proclamation required by section 8 (c) of this Act, the State of Alaska is hereby declared to be a State of the United States of America, is declared admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the other States in all respects whatever, and the constitution formed pursuant to the provisions of the Act of the Territorial Legislature of Alaska entitled, “An Act to provide for the holding of a constitutional convention to prepare a constitution for the State of Alaska; to submit the constitution to the people for adoption or rejection; to prepare for the admission of Alaska as a State; to make an appropriation; and setting an effective date”, approved March 19, 1955 (Chapter 46, Session Laws of Alaska, 1955), and adopted by a vote of the people of Alaska in the election held an April 24, 1956, is hereby found to be republican in form and in conformity with the Constitution of the United States and the principles of the Declaration of Independence, and is hereby accepted, ratified, and confirmed.

SEC. 2.
The State of Alaska shall consist of all the territory, together with the territorial waters appurtenant thereto, now included in the Territory of Alaska.

SEC. 3.
The constitution of the State of Alaska shall always be republican in form and shall not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States and the principles of the Declaration of Independence.

SEC. 4.
As a compact with the United States said State and its people do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to any lands or other property not granted or confirmed to the State or its political subdivisions by or under the authority of this Act, the right or title to which is held by the United States or is sub ject to disposition by the United States, and to any lands or other property, (including fishing rights), the right or title to which may be held by any Indians, Eskimos, or Aleuts (hereinafter called natives) or is held by the United States in trust for said natives; that all such lands or other property, belonging to the United States or which may belong to said natives, shall be and remain under the absolute juris diction and control of the United States until disposed of under its authority, except to such extent as the Congress has prescribed or may hereafter prescribe, and except when held by individual natives in fee without restrictions on alienation: Provided, That nothing contained in this act shall recognize, deny, enlarge, impair, or otherwise affect any claim against the United States, and any such claim shall be governed by the laws of the United States applicable thereto; and nothing in this Act is intended or shall be construed as a finding, interpretation, or construction by the Congress that any law applicable thereto authorizes, establishes, recognizes, or confirms the validity or invalidity of any such claim, and the determination of the applicability or effect of any law to any such claim shall be unaffected by anything in this Act: And provided further, That no taxes shall be imposed by said State upon any lands or other property now owned or hereafter acquired by the United States or which, as hereinabove set forth, may belong to said natives, except to such extent as the Congress has prescribed or may hereafter prescribe, and except when held by individual natives in fee without restrictions on alienation.

SEC. 5.
The State of Alaska and its political subdivisions, respectively, shall have and retain title to all property, real and personal, title to which is in the Territory of Alaska or any of the subdivisions. Except as provided in section 6 hereof, the United States shall retain title to all property, real and personal, to which it has title, including public lands.

SEC. 6.
(a) For the purposes of furthering the development of and expansion of communities, the State of Alaska is hereby granted and shall be entitled to select, within twenty-five years after the date of the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, from lands within national forests in Alaska which are vacant and unappropriated at the time of their selection not to exceed four hundred thousand acres of land, and from the other public lands of the United States in Alaska which are vacant, unappropriated, and unreserved at the time of their selection not to exceed another four hundred thousand acres of land, all of which shall be adjacent to established communities or suitable for prospective community centers and recreational areas. Such lands shall be selected by the State of Alaska with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture as to national forest lands and with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior as to other public lands: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall affect any valid existing claim, location, or entry under the laws of the United States, whether for homestead, mineral, right-of-way, or other purpose whatsoever, or shall affect the rights of any such owner, claimant, locator, or entryman to the full use and enjoyment of the land so occupied.

(b) The State of Alaska, in addition to any other grants made in this section, is hereby granted and shall be entitled to select, within twenty-five years after the admission of Alaska into the Union, not to exceed one hundred and two million five hundred and fifty thousand acres from the public lands of the United States in Alaska which are vacant, unappropriated, and unreserved at the time of their selection: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall affect any valid existing claim, location, or entry under the laws of the United States, whether for homestead, mineral, right-of-way, or other purpose whatsoever, or shall affect the rights of any such owner, claimant, locator, or entryman to the full use and enjoyment of the lands so occupied: And provided further, That no selection hereunder shall be made in the area north and west of the line described in section 10 without approval of the President or his designated representative.

(c) Block 32, and the structures and improvements thereon, in the city of Juneau are granted to the State of Alaska for any or all of the following purposes or a combination thereof: A residence for the Governor, a State museum, or park and recreational use.

(d) Block 19, and the structures and improvements thereon, and the interests of the United States in blocks C and 7, and the structures and improvements thereon, in the city of Juneau, are hereby granted to the State of Alaska.

(e) All real and personal property of the United States situated in the Territory of Alaska which is specifically used for the sole purpose of conservation and protection of the fisheries and wildlife of Alaska, under the provisions of the Alaska game law of July 1, 1943 (57 Stat. 301; 48 U. S. C., secs. 192-211), as amended, and under the provisions of the Alaska commercial fisheries laws of June 26, 1906 (34 Stat. 478; 48 U. S. C., secs. 230-239 and 241-242), and June 6, 1924 (43 Stat. 465; 48 U. S. C., secs. 221-228), as supplemented and amended, shall be transferred and conveyed to the State of Alaska by the appropriate Federal agency: Provided, That the administration and management of the fish and wildlife resources of Alaska shall be retained by the Federal Government under existing laws until the first day of the first calendar year following the expiration of ninety legislative days after the Secretary of the Interior certifies to the Congress that the Alaska State Legislature has made adequate provision for the administration, management, and conservation of said resources in the broad national interest: Provided, That such transfer shall not include lands withdrawn or otherwise set apart as refuges or reservations for the protection of wildlife nor facilities utilized in connection therewith, or in connection with general research activities relating to fisheries or wildlife. Sums of money that are available for apportionment or which the Secretary of the Interior shall have apportioned, as of the date the State of Alaska shall be deemed to be admitted into the Union, for wildlife restoration in the Territory of Alaska, pursuant to section 8 (a) of the Act of September 2, 1937, as amended (16 U. S. C., sec. 669g-1), and for fish restoration and management in the Territory of Alaska, pursuant to section 12 of the Act of August 9, 1950 (16 U. S. C., sec. 777k), shall continue to be available for the period, and under the terms and conditions in effect at the time, the apportionments are made. Commencing with the year during which Alaska is admitted into the Union, the Secretary of the Treasury, at the close of each fiscal year, shall pay to the State of Alaska 70 per centum of the net proceeds, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior, derived during such fiscal year from all sales of sealskins or sea-otter skins made in accordance with the provisions of the Act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100; 16 U. S. C., secs. 631a-631q), as supplemented and amended. In arriving at the net proceeds, there shall be deducted from the receipts from all sales all costs to the United States in carrying out the provisions of the Act of February 26, 1944, as supplemented and amended, including, but not limited to, the costs of handling and dressing the skins, the costs of making the sales, and all expenses incurred in the administration of the Pribilof Islands. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting the rights of the United States under the provisions of the Act of February 26, 1944, as supplemented and amended, and the Act of June 28, 1937 (50 Stat. 325), as amended (16 U. S. C., sec. 772 et seq.).

(f) Five per centum of the proceeds of sale of public lands lying within said State which shall be sold by the United States subsequent to the admission of said State into the Union, after deducting all the expenses incident to such sales, shall be paid to said State to be used for the support of the public schools within said State.

(g) Except as provided in subsection (a), all lands granted in quantity to and authorized to be selected by the State of Alaska by this Act shall be selected in such manner as the laws of the State may provide, and in conformity with such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe. All selections shall be made in reasonably compact tracts, taking into account the situation and potential uses of the lands involved, and each tract selected shall contain at least five thousand seven hundred and sixty acres unless isolated from other tracts open to selection. The authority to make selections shall never be alienated or bargained away, in whole or in part, by the State. Upon the revocation of any order of withdrawal in Alaska, the order of revocation shall provide for a period of not less than ninety days before the date on which it otherwise becomes effective, if subsequent to the admission of Alaska into the Union, during which period the State of Alaska shall have a preferred right of selection, subject to the requirements of this Act, except as against prior existing valid rights or as against equitable claims subject to allowance and confirmation. Such preferred right of selection shall have precedence over the preferred right of application created by section 4 of the Act of September 27, 1944 (58 Stat. 748; 43 U. S. C., sec. 282), as now or hereafter amended, but not over other preference rights now conferred by law. Where any lands desired by the State are unsurveyed at the time of their selection, the Secretary of the Interior shall survey the exterior boundaries of the area requested without any interior subdivision thereof and shall issue a patent for such selected area in terms of the exterior boundary survey; where any lands desired by the State are surveyed at the time of their selection, the boundaries of the area requested shall conform to the public land subdivisions established by the approval of the survey. All lands duly selected by the State of Alaska pursuant to this Act shall be patented to the State by the Secretary of the Interior. Following the selection of lands by the State and the tentative approval of such selection by the Secretary of the Interior or his designee, but prior to the issuance of final patent, the State is hereby authorized to execute conditional leases and to make conditional sales of such selected lands. As used in this subsection, the words “equitable claims subject to allowance and confirmation” include, without limitation, claims of holders of permits issued by the Department of Agriculture on lands eliminated from national forests, whose permits have been terminated only because of such elimination and who own valuable improvements on such lands.

(h) Any lease, permit, license, or contract issued under the Mineral Leasing Act of February 25, 1920 (41 Stat. 437; 30 U. S. C., sec. 181 and following), as amended, or under the Alaska Coal Leasing Act of October 20, 1914 (38 Stat. 741; 30 U. S. C., sec. 432 and following), as amended, shall have the effect of withdrawing the lands subject thereto from selection by the State of Alaska under this Act, unless such lease, permit, license, or contract is in effect on the date of appproval of this Act, and unless an application to select such lands is filed with the Secretary of the Interior within a period of five years after the date of the admission of Alaska into the Union. Such selections shall be made only from lands that are otherwise open to selection under this Act, and shall include the entire area that is subject to each lease, permit, license, or contract involved in the selections. Any patent for lands so selected shall vest in the State of Alaska all right, title, and interest of the United States in and to any such lease, permit, license, or contract that remains outstanding on the effective date of the patent, including the right to all rentals, royalties, and other payments accruing after that date under such lease, permit, license, or contract, and including any authority that may have been retained by the United States to modify the terms and conditions of such lease, permit, license, or contract: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall affect the continued validity of any such lease, permit, license, or contract or any rights arising thereunder.

(i) All grants made or confirmed under this Act shall include mineral deposits. The grants of mineral lands to the State of Alaska under subsections (a) and (b) of this section are made upon the express condition that all sales, grants, deeds, or patents for any of the mineral lands so granted shall be subject to and contain reservation to the State of all of the minerals in the lands so sold, granted, deeded, or patented, together with the right to prospect for, mine, and remove the same. Mineral deposits in such lands shall be subject to lease by the State as the State legislature may direct: Provided, That any lands or minerals hereafter disposed of contrary to the provisions of this section shall be forfeited to the United States by appropriate proceedings instituted by the Attorney General for that purpose in the United States District Court for the District of Alaska.

(j) The schools and colleges provided for in this Act shall forever remain under the exclusive control of the State, or its governmental subdivisions, and no part of the proceeds arising from the sale or disposal of any lands granted herein for educational purposes shall be used for the support of any sectarian or denominational school, college, or university.

(k) Grants previously made to the Territory of Alaska are hereby confirmed and transferred to the State of Alaska upon its admission. Effective upon the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, section 1 of the Act of March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1214; 48 U. S. C., sec. 353), as amended, and the last sentence of section 35 of the Act of February 25, 1920 (41 Stat. 450; 30 U. S. C, sec. 191), as amended, are repealed and all lands therein reserved under the provisions of section 1 as of the date of this Act shall, upon the admission of said State into the Union, be granted to said State for the purposes for which they were reserved; but such repeal shall not affect any outstanding lease, permit, license, or contract issued under said section 1, as amended, or any rights or powers with respect to such lease, permit, license, or contract, and shall not affect the disposition of the proceeds or income derived prior to such repeal from any lands reserved under said section 1, as amended, or derived thereafter from any disposition of the reserved lands or an interest therein made prior to such repeal.

(l) The grants provided for in this Act shall be in lieu of the grant of land for purposes of internal improvements made to new States by section 8 of the Act of September 4, 1841 (5 Stat. 455), and sections 2378 and 2379 of the Revised Statutes (43 U. S. C., sec. 857), and in lieu of the swampland grant made by the Act of September 28, 1850 (9 Stat. 520), and section 2479 of the Revised Statutes (43 U. S. C., sec. 982), and in lieu of the grant of thirty thousand acres for each Senator and Representative in Congress made by the Act of July 2, 1862, as amended (12 Stat. 503; 7 U. S. C., secs. 301-308), which grants are hereby declared not to extend to the State of Alaska.

(m) The Submerged Lands Act of 1953 (Public Law 31, Eightythird Congress, first session; 67 Stat. 29) shall be applicable to the State of Alaska and the said State shall have the same rights as do existing States thereunder.

SEC. 7.
Upon enactment of this Act, it shall be the duty of the President of the United States, not later than July 3, 1958, to certify such fact to the Governor of Alaska. Thereupon the Governor, on or after July 3, 1958, and not later than August 1, 1958, shall issue his proclamation for the elections, as hereinafter provided, for officers of all elective offices and in the manner provided for by the constitution of the proposed State of Alaska, but the officers so elected shall in any event include two Senators and one Representative in Congress.

SEC. 8.
(a) The proclamation of the Governor of Alaska required by section 7 shall provide for holding of a primary election and a general election on dates to be fixed by the Governor of Alaska: Provided, That the general election shall not be held later than December 1, 1958, and at such elections the officers required to be elected as provided in section 7 shall be, and officers for other elective offices provided for in the constitution of the proposed State of Alaska may be, chosen by the people. Such elections shall be held, and the qualifications of voters thereat shall be, as prescribed by the constitution of the proposed State of Alaska for the election of members of the proposed State legislature. The returns thereof shall be made and certified in such manner as the constitution of the proposed State of Alaska may prescribe. The Governor of Alaska shall certify the results of said elections to the President of the United States.

(b) At an election designated by proclamation of the Governor of Alaska, which may be the general election held pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or a Territorial general election, or a special election, there shall be submitted to the electors qualified to vote in said election, for adoption or rejection, by separate ballot on each, the following propositions: “(1) Shall Alaska immediately be admitted into the Union as a State? “(2) The boundaries of the State of Alaska shall be as prescribed in the Act of Congress approved _____________________ (date of approval of this Act) and all claims of this State to any areas of land or sea outside the boundaries so prescribed are hereby irrevocably relinquished to the United States. “(3) All provisions of the Act of Congress approved ____________ (date of approval) reserving rights or powers to the United States, as well as of this Act those prescribing the terms or conditions of the grants of lands or other property therein made to the State of Alaska, are consented to fully by said State and its people.” In the event each of the foregoing propositions is adopted at said election by a majority of the legal votes cast on said submission, the proposed constitution of the proposed State of Alaska, ratified by the people at the election held on April 24, 1956, shall be deemed amended accordingly. In the event any one of the foregoing propositions is not adopted at said election by a majority of the legal votes cast on said submission, the provisions of this Act shall thereupon cease to be effective. The Governor of Alaska is hereby authorized and directed to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to insure the submission of said propositions to the people. The return of the votes cast on said propositions shall be made by the election officers directly to the Secretary of Alaska, who shall certify the results of the submission to the Governor. The Governor shall certify the results of said submission, as so ascertained, to the President of the United States.

(c) If the President shall find that the propositions set forth in the preceding subsection have been duly adopted by the people of Alaska, the President, upon certification of the returns of the election of the officers required to be elected as provided in section 7 of this Act, shall thereupon issue his proclamation announcing the results of said election as so ascertained. Upon the issuance of said proclamation by the President, the State of Alaska shall be deemed admitted into the Union as provided in section 1 of this Act. Until the said State is so admitted into the Union, all of the officers of said Territory, including the Delegate in Congress from said Territory, shall continue to discharge the duties of their respective offices. Upon the issuance of said proclamation by the President of the United States and the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, the officers elected at said election, and qualified under the provisions of the constitution and laws of said State, shall proceed to exercise all the functions pertaining to their offices in or under or by authority of the government of said State, and officers not required to be elected at said initial election shall be selected or continued in office as provided by the constitution and laws of said State. The Governor of said State shall certify the election of the Senators and Representative in the manner required by law, and the said Senators and Representative shall be entitled to be admitted to seats in Congress and to all the rights and privileges of Senators and Representatives of other States in the Congress of the United States.

(d) Upon admission of the State of Alaska into the Union as herein provided, all of the Territorial laws then in force in the Territory of Alaska shall be and continue in full force and effect throughout said State except as modified or changed by this Act, or by the constitution of the State, or as thereafter modified or changed by the legislature of the State. All of the laws of the United States shall have the same force and effect within said State as elsewhere within the United States. As used in this paragraph, the term “Territorial laws” includes (in addition to laws enacted by the Territorial Legislature of Alaska) all laws or parts thereof enacted by the Congress the validity of which is dependent solely upon the authority of the Congress to provide for the government of Alaska prior to the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, and the term “laws of the United States” includes all laws or parts thereof enacted by the Congress that (1) apply to or within Alaska at the time of the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, (2) are not “Territorial laws” as defined in this paragraph, and (3) are not in conflict with any other provisions of this Act.

SEC. 9.
The State of Alaska upon its admission into the Union shall be entitled to one Representative until the taking effect of the next reapportionment, and such Representative shall be in addition to the membership of the House of Representatives as now prescribed by law: Provided, That such temporary increase in the membership shall not operate to either increase or decrease the permanent membership of the House of Representatives as prescribed in the Act of August 8, 1911 (37 Stat. 13) nor shall such temporary increase affect the basis of apportionment established by the Act of November 15, 1941 (55 Stat. 761; 2 U. S. C., sec. 2a), for the Eighty-third Congress and each Congress thereafter.

SEC. 10.
(a) The President of the United States is hereby authorized to establish, by Executive order or proclamation, one or more special national defense withdrawals within the exterior boundaries of Alaska, which withdrawal or withdrawals may thereafter be terminated in whole or in part by the President.

(b) Special national defense withdrawals established under subsection (a) of this section shall be confined to those portions of Alaska that are situated to the north or west of the following line: Beginning at the point where the Porcupine River crosses the international boundary between Alaska and Canada; thence along a line parallel to, and five miles from, the right bank of the main channel of the Porcupine River to its confluence with the Yukon River; thence along a line parallel to, and five miles from, the right bank of the main channel of the Yukon River to its most southerly point of intersection with the meridian of longitude 160 degrees west of Greenwich; thence south to the intersection of said meridian with the Kuskokwim River; thence along a line parallel to, and five miles from the right bank of the Kuskokwim River to the mouth of said river; thence along the shoreline of Kuskokwim Bay to its intersection with the meridian of longitude 162 degrees 30 minutes west of Greenwich; thence south to the intersection of said meridian with the parallel of latitude 57 degrees 30 minutes north; thence east to the intersection of said parallel with the meridian of longitude 156 degrees west of Greenwich; thence south to the intersection of said meridian with the parallel of latitude 50 degrees north.

(c) Effective upon the issuance of such Executive order or proclamation, exclusive jurisdiction over all special national defense withdrawals established under this section is hereby reserved to the United States, which shall have sole legislative, judicial, and executive power within such withdrawals, except as provided hereinafter. The exclusive jurisdiction so established shall extend to all lands within the exterior boundaries of each such withdrawal, and shall remain in effect with respect to any particular tract or parcel of land only so long as such tract or parcel remains within the exterior boundaries of such a withdrawal. The laws of the State of Alaska shall not apply to areas within any special national defense withdrawal established under this section while such areas remain subject to the exclusive jurisdiction hereby authorized: Provided, however, That such exclusive jurisdiction shall not prevent the execution of any process, civil or criminal, of the State of Alaska, upon any person found within said withdrawals: And provided further, That such exclusive jurisdiction shall not prohibit the State of Alaska from enacting and enforcing all laws necessary to establish voting districts, and the qualification and procedures for voting in all elections.

(d) During the continuance in effect of any special national defense withdrawal established under this section, or until the Congress otherwise provides, such exclusive jurisdiction shall be exercised within each such withdrawal in accordance with the following provisions of law: (1) All laws enacted by the Congress that are of general application to areas under the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, including, but without limiting the generality of the foregoing, those provisions of title 18, United States Code, that are applicable within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States as defined in section 7 of said title, shall apply to all areas within such withdrawals. (2) In addition, any areas within the withdrawals that are reserved by Act of Congress or by Executive action for a particular military or civilian use of the United States shall be subject to all laws enacted by the Congress that have application to lands withdrawn for that particular use, and any other areas within the withdrawals shall be subject to all laws enacted by the Congress that are of general application to lands withdrawn for defense purposes of the United States. (3) To the extent consistent with the laws described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection and with regulations made or other actions taken under their authority, all laws in force within such withdrawals immediately prior to the creation thereof by Executive order or proclamation shall apply within the withdrawals and, for this purpose, are adopted as laws of the United States: Provided, however, That the laws of the State or Territory relating to the organization or powers of municipalities or local political subdivisions, and the laws or ordinances of such municipalities or political subdivisions shall not be adopted as laws of the United States. (4) All functions vested in the United States commissioners by the laws described in this subsection shall continue to be performed within the withdrawals by such commissioners. (5) All functions vested in any municipal corporation, school district, or other local political subdivision by the laws described in this subsection shall continue to be performed within the withdrawals by such corporation, district, or other subdivision, and the laws of the State or the laws or ordinances of such municipalities or local political subdivision shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding any withdrawal made under this section. (6) All other functions vested in the government of Alaska or in any officer or agency thereof, except judicial functions over which the United States District Court for the District of Alaska is given jurisdiction by this act or other provisions of law, shall be performed within the withdrawals by such civilian individuals or civilian agencies and in such manner as the President shall from time to time, by Executive order, direct or authorize. (7) The United States District Court for the District of Alaska shall have original jurisdiction, without regard to the sum or value of any matter in controversy, over all civil actions arising within such withdrawals under the laws made applicable thereto by this subsection, as well as over all offenses committed within the withdrawals.

(e) Nothing contained in subsection (d) of this section shall be construed as limiting the exclusive jurisdiction established in the United States by subsection (c) of this section or the authority of the Congress to implement such exclusive jurisdiction by appropriate legislation, or as denying to persons now or hereafter residing within any portion of the areas described in subsection (b) of this section the right to vote at all elections held within the political subdivisions as prescribed by the State of Alaska where they respectively reside, or as limiting the jurisdiction conferred on the United States District Court for the District of Alaska by any other provision of law, or as continuing in effect laws relating to the Legislature of the Territory of Alaska. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as limiting any authority otherwise vested in the Congress or the President.

SEC. 11.
(a) Nothing in this Act shall affect the establishment, or the right, ownership, and authority of the United States in Mount McKinley National Park, as now or hereafter constituted; but exclusive jurisdiction, in all cases, shall be exercised by the United States for the national park, as now or hereafter constituted; saving, however, to the State of Alaska the right to serve civil or criminal process within the limits of the aforesaid park in suits or prosecutions for or on account of rights acquired, obligations incurred, or crimes committed in said State, but outside of said park; and saving further to the said State the right to tax persons and corporations, their franchises and property on the lands included in said park; and saving also to the persons residing now or hereafter in such area the right to vote at all elections held within the respective political subdivisions of their residence in which the park is situated.

(b) Notwithstanding the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, authority is reserved in the United States, subject to the proviso hereinafter set forth, for the exercise by the Congress of the United States of the power of exclusive legislation, as provided by article I, section 8, clause 17, of the Constitution of the United States, in all cases whatsoever over such tracts or parcels of land as, immediately prior to the admission of said State, are owned by the United States and held for military, naval, Air Force, or Coast Guard purposes, including naval petroleum reserve numbered 4, whether such lands were acquired by cession and transfer to the United States by Russia and set aside by Act of Congress or by Executive order or proclamation of the President or the Governor of Alaska for the use of the United States, or were acquired by the United States by purchase, condemnation, donation, exchange, or otherwise: Provided, (i) That the State of Alaska shall always have the right to serve civil or criminal process within the said tracts or parcels of land in suits or prosecutions for or on account of rights acquired, obligations incurred, or crimes committed within the said State but outside of the said tracts or parcels of land; (ii) that the reservation of authority in the United States for the exercise by the Congress of the United States of the power of exclusive legislation over the lands aforesaid shall not operate to prevent such lands from being a part of the State of Alaska, or to prevent the said State from exercising over or upon such lands, concurrently with the United States, any jurisdiction whatsoever which it would have in the absence of such reservation of authority and which is consistent with the laws hereafter enacted by the Congress pursuant to such reservation of authority; and (iii) that such power of exclusive legislation shall rest and remain in the United States only so long as the particular tract or parcel of land involved is owned by the United States and used for military, naval, Air Force, or Coast Guard purposes. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to lands within such special national defense withdrawal or withdrawals as may be established pursuant to section 10 of this Act until such lands cease to be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction reserved to the United States by that section.

SEC. 12.
Effective upon the admission of Alaska into the Union
(a) The analysis of chapter 5 of title 28, United States Code, immediately preceding section 81 of such title, is amended by inserting immediately after and underneath item 81 of such analysis, a new item to be designated as item 81A and to read as follows: “81A Alaska”;

(b) Title 28, United States Code, is amended by inserting immediately after section 81 thereof a new section, to be designated as section 81A, and to read as follows: “(section) 81A. Alaska “Alaska constitutes one judicial district. “Court shall be held at Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Nome.”;

(c) Section 133 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by inserting in the table of districts and judges in such section immediately above the item: “Arizona * * * 2”, a new item as follows: “Alaska * * * 1”;

(d) The first paragraph of section 373 of title 28, United States Code, as heretofore amended, is further amended by striking out the words: “the District Court for the Territory of Alaska,”: Provided, That the amendment made by this subsection shall not affect the rights of any judge who may have retired before it takes effect;

(e) The words “the District Court for the Territory of Alaska,” are stricken out wherever they appear in sections 333, 460, 610, 753, 1252, 1291, 1292, and 1346 of title 28, United States Code;

(f) The first paragraph of section 1252 of title 28, United States Code, is further amended by striking out the word “Alaska,” from the clause relating to courts of record;

(g) Subsection (2) of section 1294 of title 28, United States Code, is repealed and the later subsections of such section are renumbered accordingly;

(h) Subsection (a) of section 2410 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words: “including the District Court for the Territory of Alaska,”;

(i) Section 3241 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words: “District Court for the Territory of Alaska, the”;

(j) Subsection (e) of section 3401 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words: “for Alaska or”;

(k) Section 3771 of title 18, United States Code, as heretofore amended, is further amended by striking out from the first paragraph of such section the words: “the Territory of Alaska,”;

(l) Section 3772 of title 18, United States Code, as heretofore amended, is further amended by striking out from the first paragraph of such section the words: “the Territory of Alaska,” ;

(m) Section 2072 of title 28, United States Code, as heretofore amended, is further amended by striking out from the first paragraph of such section the words: “and of the District Court for the Territory of Alaska”;

(n) Subsection (q) of section 376 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words: “the District Court for the Territory of Alaska,”: Provided, That the amendment made by this subsection shall not affect the rights under such section 376 of any present or former judge of the District Court for the Territory of Alaska or his survivors;

(o) The last paragraph of section 1963 of title 28, United States Code, is repealed;

(p) Section 2201 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words: “and the District Court for the Territory of Alaska”; and

(q) Section 4 of the Act of July 28, 1950 (64 Stat. 380; 5 U. S. C., sec. 341b) is amended by striking out the word: “Alaska,”.

SEC. 13.
No writ, action, indictment, cause, or proceeding pending in the District Court for the Territory of Alaska on the date when said Territory shall become a State, and no case pending in an appellate court upon appeal from the District Court for the Territory of Alaska at the time said Territory shall become a State, shall abate by the admission of the State of Alaska into the Union, but the same shall be transferred and proceeded with as hereinafter provided. All civil causes of action and all criminal offenses which shall have arisen or been committed prior to the admission of said State, but as to which no suit, action, or prosecution shall be pending at the date of such admission, shall be subject to prosecution in the appropriate State courts or in the United States District Court for the District of Alaska in like manner, to the same extent, and with like right of appellate review, as if said State had been created and said courts had been established prior to the accrual of said causes of action or the commission of such offenses; and such of said criminal offenses as shall have been committed against the laws of the Territory shall be tried and punished by the appropriate courts of said State, and such as shall have been committed against the laws of the United States shall be tried and punished in the United States District Court for the District of Alaska.

SEC. 14.
All appeals taken from the District Court for the Territory of Alaska to the Supreme Court of the United States or the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, previous to the admission of Alaska as a State, shall be prosecuted to final determination as though this act had not been passed. All cases in which final judgment has been rendered in such district court, and in which appeals might be had except for the admission of such State, may still be sued out, taken, and prosecuted to the Supreme Court of the United States or the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit under the provisions of then existing law, and there held and determined in like manner; and in either case, the Supreme Court of the United States, or the United States Court of Appeals, in the event of reversal, shall remand the said cause to either the State supreme court or other final appellate court of said State, or the United States district court for said district, as the case may require: Provided, That the time allowed by existing law for appeals from the district court for said Territory shall not be enlarged thereby.

SEC. 15.
All causes pending or determined in the District Court for the Territory of Alaska at the time of the admission of Alaska as a State which are of such nature as to be within the jurisdiction of a district court of the United States shall be transferred to the United States District Court for the District of Alaska for final disposition and enforcement in the same manner as is now provided by law with reference to the judgments and decrees in existing United States district courts. All other causes pending or determined in the District Court for the Territory of Alaska at the time of the admission of Alaska as a State shall be transferred to the appropriate State court of Alaska. All final judgments and decrees rendered upon such transferred cases in the United States District Court for the District of Alaska may be reviewed by the Supreme Court of the United States or by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in the same manner as is now provided by law with reference to the judgments and decrees in existing United States district courts.

SEC. 16.
Jurisdiction of all cases pending or determined in the District Court for the Territory of Alaska not transferred to the United States District Court for the District of Alaska shall devolve upon and be exercised by the courts of original jurisdiction created by said State, which shall be deemed to be the successor of the District Court for the Territory of Alaska with respect to cases not so transferred and, as such, shall take and retain custody of all records, dockets, journals, and files of such court pertaining to such cases. The files and papers in all cases so transferred to the United States district court, together with a transcript of all book entries to complete the record in such particular cases so transferred, shall be in like manner transferred to said district court.

SEC. 17.
All cases pending in the District Court for the Territory of Alaska at the time said Territory becomes a State not transferred to the United States District Court for the District of Alaska shall be proceeded with and determined by the courts created by said State with the right to prosecute appeals to the appellate courts created by said State, and also with the same right to prosecute appeals or writs of certiorari from the final determination in said causes made by the court of last resort created by such State to the Supreme Court of the United States, as now provided by law for appeals and writs of certiorari from the court of last resort of a State to the Supreme Court of the United States.

SEC. 18.
The provisions of the preceding sections with respect to the termination of the Jurisdiction of the District Court for the Territory of Alaska, the continuation of suits, the succession of courts, and the satisfaction of rights of litigants in suits before such courts, shall not be effective until three years after the effective date of this Act, unless the President, by Executive order, shall sooner proclaim that the United States District Court for the District of Alaska, established in accordance with the provisions of this Act, is prepared to assume the functions imposed upon it. During such period of three years or until such Executive order is issued, the United States District Court for the Territory of Alaska shall continue to function as heretofore. The tenure of the judges, the United States attorneys, marshals, and other officers of the United States District Court for the Territory of Alaska shall terminate at such time as that court shall cease to function as provided in this section.

SEC. 19.
The first paragraph of section 2 of the Federal Reserve Act (38 Stat. 251) is amended by striking out the last sentence thereof and inserting in lieu of such sentence the following: “When the State of Alaska is hereafter admitted to the Union the Federal Reserve districts shall be readjusted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in such manner as to include such State. Every national bank in any State shall, upon commencing business or within ninety days after admission into the Union of the State in which it is located, become a member bank of the Federal Reserve System by subscribing and paying for stock in the Federal Reserve bank of its district in accordance with the provisions of this Act and shall thereupon be an insured bank under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, and failure to do so shall subject such bank to the penalty provided by the sixth paragraph of this section.”

SEC. 20.
Section 2 of the Act of October 20, 1914 (38 Stat. 742; 48 U. S. C., sec. 433), is hereby repealed.

SEC. 21.
Nothing contained in this Act shall operate to confer United States nationality, nor to terminate nationality heretofore lawfully acquired, nor restore nationality heretofore lost under any law of the United States or under any treaty to which the United States may have been a party.

SEC. 22.
Section 101 (a) (36) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 170, 8 U. S. C., sec. 1101 (a) (36)) is amended by deleting the word “Alaska,”.

SEC. 23.
The first sentence of section 212 (d) (7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 188, 8 U. S. C., sec. 1182 (d) (7)) is amended by deleting the word “Alaska,”.

SEC. 24.
Nothing contained in this Act shall be held to repeal, amend, or modify the provisions of section 304 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 237, 8 U. S. C., sec. 1404).

SEC. 25.
The first sentence of section 310 (a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 239, 8 U. S. C., sec. 1421 (a)) is amended by deleting the words “District Courts of the United States for the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska” and substituting therefor the words “District Court of the United States for the Territory of Hawaii”.

SEC. 26.
Section 344 (d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. (66 Stat. 265, 8 U. S. C., sec. 1455 (d)) is amended by deleting the words “in Alaska and”.

SEC. 27.
(a) The third proviso in section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, as amended (46 U. S. C., sec. 883), is further amended by striking out the word “excluding” and inserting in lieu thereof the word “including”.

(b) Nothing contained in this or any other Act shall be construed as depriving the Federal Maritime Board of the exclusive jurisdiction heretofore conferred on it over common carriers engaged in transportation by water between any port in the State of Alaska and other ports in the United States, its Territories or possessions, or as conferring upon the Interstate Commerce Commission jurisdiction over transportation by water between any such ports.

SEC. 28.
(a) The last sentence of section 9 of the Act entitled “An Act to provide for the leasing of coal lands in the Territory of Alaska, and for other purposes”, approved October 20, 1914 (48 U. S. C. 439), is hereby amended to read as follows: “All net profits from operation of Government mines, and all bonuses, royalties, and rentals under leases as herein provided and all other payments received under this Act shall be distributed as follows as soon as practicable after December 31 and June 30 of each year: (1) 90 per centum thereof shall be paid by the Secretary of the Treasury to the State of Alaska for disposition by the legislature thereof; and (2) 10 per centum shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of miscellaneous receipts.”

(b) Section 35 of the Act entitled “An Act to promote the mining of coal, phosphate, oil, oil shale, gas, and sodium on the public domain”, approved February 25, 1920, as amended (30 U. S. C. 191), is hereby amended by inserting immediately before the colon preceding the first proviso thereof the following: “, and of those from Alaska 52 1/2 per centum thereof shall be paid to the State of Alaska for disposition by the legislature thereof”.

SEC. 29.
If any provision of this Act, or any section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase, or individual word, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and of the application of any such provision, section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase, or individual word to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

SEC. 30.
All Acts or parts of Acts in conflict with the provisions of this Act, whether passed by the legislature of said Territory or by Congress, are hereby repealed.

Approved July 7, 1958.

Fuente: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/ak_statehood.asp

Sobre el proyecto de admisión

Por: Lcdo. José Cabrera Costas

Existe un grado de confusión respecto a los próximos pasos a seguir en el proceso de convertir a Puerto Rico en estado.  Procede una clarificación.

La mayoría del electorado refrendó la estadidad en el plebiscito del pasado 6 de noviembre.  Ese resultado fue contundente y constituye la primera vez que el Pueblo endosa mayoritariamente la estadidad para Puerto Rico.   Ese triunfo estadista no necesita reconfirmación.

906202_547953395257540_855310900_o

Ahora bien, el Congreso, en el proceso de admitir a Puerto Rico como estado y dentro de sus prerrogativas constitucionales, puede requerir que el Pueblo apruebe o rechace los términos de admisión para Puerto Rico contenidos en una acta de admisión.  (Véase Grupo de Investigadores Puertorriqueños, Breakthrough from Colonialism: An Interdisciplinary Study of Statehood).

Una acta de admisión sirve como una oferta de estadidad que el Congreso le brinda al territorio.  La acta ofrecería tanto condiciones que el Congreso entienda necesarias para la admisión como concesiones que el Congreso quiera hacer a favor del nuevo estado de Puerto Rico.  Según mencionamos arriba, el Congreso podría requerirle al Pueblo de Puerto Rico aceptar o rechazar los términos de este “contrato” de estadidad entre el Congreso y el territorio.

En lo pertinente, una consulta para ratificar una acta de admisión es diferente a un nuevo plebiscito “estadidad sí o no”.  A saber, no es lo mismo preguntar si queremos o no la estadidad, cosa que ya contestamos en la afirmativa el pasado 6 de noviembre, que preguntar si aceptamos los términos y condiciones de una acta de admisión que ofrezca el Congreso, cosa que no hemos hecho.

Mañana el Comisionado Residente Pedro Pierluisi a todas luces radicará un proyecto de admisión.  Entendemos que la nueva consulta que el Comisionado ha mencionado en los medios se refiere a un referendo para ratificar una futura acta de admisión, no una nueva consulta “estadidad sí o no”.  Confiamos en que así será.

Así las cosas, mañana promete ser un día histórico para Puerto Rico.  Por primera vez se radicará un proyecto de admisión amparado en un mandato del Pueblo.

Como sabemos, lograr la igualdad es tarea de todos.  Trabajemos entonces para que el Congreso atienda nuestra petición de estadidad.  Así daremos a respetar nuestro voto y encaminaremos a Puerto Rico hacia un mejor futuro.

* * *

José Cabrera Costas es abogado y fue Presidente de la Asociación de Estudiantes Estadistas de Puerto Rico (PRSSA, por sus siglas en inglés).

Sobre un plebiscito federal

Entendemos que un plebiscito adicional es redundante considerando que el Pueblo ya rechazó la colonia y pidió la estadidad el pasado 6 de noviembre de 2012.  Lo que procede es radicar un acta de admisión.

No obstante, la propuesta del Presidente Barack Obama de destinar $2.5 millones en el presupuesto federal 2014 para un nuevo proceso plebiscitario abre las puertas a que el Congreso por primera vez celebre un plebiscito de estatus vinculante.

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Cabe resaltar que el mismo ofrecería opciones de estatus no territoriales, permanentes y permisibles bajo la Constitución de los Estados Unidos.  Por ende, el estatus territorial actual sería descartado por ser territorial y el “ELA mejorado” sería descartado por ser ilusorio e incompatible con el ordenamiento constitucional americano.

Este anuncio demuestra cuán inválido e insostenible es el estatus territorial actual a la luz de los resultados del pasado plebiscito.   Los puertorriqueños retiramos nuestro consentimiento a ser gobernados bajo un régimen colonial y exigimos la igualdad plena en derechos y responsabilidades como ciudadanos americanos.

Aunque los resultados del pasado plebiscito del 6 de noviembre fueron claros y contundentes, apoyamos la celebración de un plebiscito federal si uno se presenta.  Todo estadista debe estar preparado para luchar por su ideal cuantas veces sea necesario

Así como lo hicimos en el 2012, volveremos a dar la batalla educando sobre la estadidad y aportaremos a otra victoria contundente a favor de la igualdad para todos los puertorriqueños.

Lcdo. José Cabrera

El legado de igualdad de Ramón Power y Giralt

Por: Lcdo. José Cabrera Costas

Ramón Power y Giralt es una figura cuyo legado, doscientos años después de su muerte, promueve la igualdad en derechos y libertades para todos los puertorriqueños.

Ante la llegada a Puerto Rico de los restos de Power, en gran medida un proyecto para acaparar la atención, impulsar el nacionalismo y obviar los evidentes problemas de la Administración García Padilla, procede que reconozcamos el verdadero legado de este ilustre puertorriqueño.

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Power nació en San Juan, de padres españoles y recibió su formación académica en España.  Acto seguido, Power enlistó en la Armada Española, adquirió el rango de capitán y luchó de 1808 a 1809 en la defensa española de Santo Domingo ante las fuerzas navales de la Francia napoleónica.

Power es recordado en la historia puertorriqueña porque fue electo en 1810 para representar a Puerto Rico como diputado en las Cortes de Cádiz en España.  Estas cortes fungían como una legislatura nacional española.  Power sirvió en esta legislatura hasta el momento de su temprana muerte en 1813 a causa de la fiebre amarilla.  (Véase Fernando Picó, Historia general de Puerto Rico).

Power fue electo vicepresidente de las Cortes por sus compañeros diputados.  Como diputado, Power fue propulsor de la Ley Power, una medida que designó a Fajardo, Aguadilla, Mayaguez, Cabo Rojo y Ponce como puertos de libre comercio, entre otras medidas para robustecer la economía de Puerto Rico.

Durante su incumbencia, las Cortes aprobaron la Constitución española de 1812, la primera constitución en la historia de España.  Esta constitución, de corte liberal, proveía una serie de derechos y libertades que beneficiaron a los españoles, incluidos los residentes de Puerto Rico.  En particular, todos los nacidos en las colonias españolas en el Nuevo Mundo, incluyendo a Puerto Rico, adquirieron la ciudadanía española.  Además, bajo esta Constitución, Puerto Rico tenía voz y voto en las Cortes.  Aunque estas libertades fueron abrogadas en 1814, Power logró en vida, a través de la legislatura española, que los puertorriqueños disfrutaran de unos derechos y libertades que no habían tenido previamente.

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En esencia, Power fungió como una especie de comisionado residente en España.   Claro está, Power tenía voto en las Cortes de Cádiz, algo que los comisionados residentes en Washington carecen.  En ese sentido, fue el representante puertorriqueño ante la metrópolis con mayor poder político en la historia de Puerto Rico.

Resulta irónico que ciertos sectores nacionalistas ilógicamente adopten a la figura de Power como portaestandarte cuando Power promovió tanto la integración de Puerto Rico a España como la igualdad entre puertorriqueños y los demás ciudadanos españoles.

Power demostró que, en su tiempo, se podía ser un patriota puertorriqueño y un buen español.  Nos corresponde ahora a las presentes generaciones honrar el legado de Power y hacer realidad su mayor propósito, lograr la igualdad en derechos y responsabilidades para todos los puertorriqueños.

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NOTA: José Cabrera Costas (@JCabreraCostas) es abogado, notario público y propietario de Cabrera Costas Law Office. En el 2007 reactivó el Puerto Rico Statehood Students Association (PRSSA) y fue su Presidente Nacional hasta el 2009.  Luego lanzó el Proyecto Estrella para orientar sobre la estadidad de cara al plebiscito de estatus del 2012. Ha discutido sobre la estadidad en programas como The Stream de Al Jazeera America.

¿Adióh y tú no eras estadista?

Comentario especial sometido a Proyecto Estrella

Por: Gabriel Martínez Rivera

Hace apenas 15 minutos, Puerto Rico acaba de clasificar a la final del Mundial de Baseball, y ante el cúmulo de emociones y orgullo que siento en estos momentos he decidido escribir estas líneas.

Durante los pasados días hemos vividos momentos históricos para nuestra isla. Quien diría que un equipo, el cual la mayoría de los analistas de deportes no le daban muchas esperanzas e incluso muchos de nosotros ni siquiera pensábamos que pasarían de la primera ronda, nos llenaría de orgullo y nos “uniría” como pueblo. Hoy, el nombre de Puerto Rico será conocido por todos los rincones del mundo y el que no lo conocía, lo conocerá. Las reacciones del pueblo no se han hecho esperar, muchas han sido bastante pintorescas, típico de nosotros los boricuas, y otras han sido un poco preocupantes. Lo cierto es, que en muchas ocasiones estas manifestaciones resultan ser el reflejo de un pueblo y sirven para estudiar el pensamiento colectivo de éste. Sin embargo, a raíz de esto muchos cuestionamientos vagaron por mi mente, pero solo uno logró asentarse con insistencia en ella. ¿Cómo una persona nacida en este pedacito terrenal no puede sentir orgullo por los logros y reconocimientos que en su nombre sus ciudadanos obtienen internacionalmente? ¿Es eso posible?

usp-baseball_-world-baseball-classic-puerto-rico-v-4_3_r536_c534Es inconcebible pensar que hoy día hayan personas que piensen, ya sea por fanatismo, mediocridad, desconocimiento, o quizás por diversión, que una persona que quiera la estadidad para Puerto Rico no pueda celebrar los triunfos de nuestra isla por el simple hecho de querer unirse permanentemente a la nación americana. ¿Acaso esa persona deja de ser puertorriqueño porque en su análisis vive convencido de que a través de la unión permanente nuestra isla puede salir del estancamiento social, político y económico? No te has cuestionado, aunque difieras de su pensar, que precisamente, lo que su deseo persigue es mejorar las condiciones y calidad de vida de nuestra isla. ¿Qué significado tiene eso para ti? ¿Es mucho más importante para ti eso, o que ondee la bandera de manera efusiva durante determinado evento, pero detrás de eso sea un criminal, un desertor, un violador, un mantenido, etc.?

Mucho se ha hablado de “amor patrio” durante estos días, pero ¿cómo defines amor patrio? ¿Levantar la bandera lo más alto posible? ¿Vestir una gorra con las iniciales del país? ¿Recibir a los deportistas y a las Miss Universos en el aeropuerto Luis Muñoz Marín? ¿Y después de eso qué?

“Amor Patrio” representa muchas cosas lindas que trascienden mucho más que eso. Amor patrio es buscar la manera de ser una mejor persona cada día. Amor patrio es educarte para que eventualmente te conviertas en un profesional que aporte y no reste a nuestra sociedad. Amor patrio es instruir y enseñar a tus hijos el valor de conocer nuestra historia. Amor patrio es ser ejemplos para tus hijos, donde ellos puedan verte como un ente de inspiración y motivación para lograr sus metas. Amor patrio es darle importancia y valor al trabajo. Amor patrio es no hablar a las espaldas de tus vecinos, amigos y familiares. Amor patrio es repudiar toda actitud de dejadez y sustento. Amor patrio es rechazar toda conducta inmoral y no ser cómplice de ella. Amor patrio es no ser un aliado sutil del criminal por medio del silencio. Amor Patrio representa más que un orgullo pasajero disfrazado de gorras y banderas en determinado momento, una conducta o un estilo de vida que debe alojarse imperantemente en la vida cotidiana de todos nosotros.

Quizás, eres de los que ha acogido y aceptado el famoso estribillo “El que no quiere a su patria no quiere a su madre”, de manera automática y sin ningún tipo de cuestionamiento previo para atacar erróneamente a los estadistas, tal como lo hacen “los grandes cantantes” de manera mal intencionada. Pues le informo, que el verdadero estadista ama inmensamente su tierra y vivirá siempre orgulloso de su cultura y sus tradiciones. El que diga lo contrario, se miente así mismo.

dt.common.streams.StreamServer.clsMe parece que en nada contribuye a esa “unión” que muchos alardean promover en la isla, la división social mal intencionada de muchos, por el simple hecho de que no se comparta un mismo ideal. Sin embargo, no sienta que están solos en ese grupo, debo reconocer que hay algunos estadistas que le han hecho daño al ideal, tergiversando los propósitos y el mensaje real que ello conlleva. Es igual de culpable, aquel “estadista” fanático que sólo ondea la bandera americana o se disfraza con ella con la única intención de crear controversia, polémica y diversión para la oposición, pero vive alejado, o ni tan siquiera se acerca a lo que realmente representa ser un verdadero emisor del ideal. Ellos también tienen culpa.

El estadismo es un ideal digno e igual de respetable que el independentismo. Por lo tanto, la lucha siempre debe ser en contra del status quo (La Colonia) más no con el ideal independentista y sus verdaderos seguidores. Digo verdaderos, porque actualmente son muchos los que presumen ser independentistas pero “no tienen los pantalones” para lucharla. Por ende, se suman implícitamente a las arcas del colonialismo.

Que usted no esté de acuerdo con el ideal estadista, es respetable. Pero de ahí a recurrir a los ataques ideológicos como punto de lanza, en eventos cuyo propósito principal es promover la unión de los pueblos, me parece que es una conducta totalmente errada y a destiempo. El mero hecho de que usted entienda que hay otras maneras o soluciones viables para resolver nuestro estatus político, no es motivo para atacar al que piense diferente a usted, ni lo hace menos puertorriqueño que usted. La no concurrencia de una persona con su línea de pensamiento no debe ser sinónimo de separación, más si de unión y diversidad.

El que no concurra con tus ideales, no lo hace más o menos inteligente que usted. El que no concurra con tus acciones, no lo convierte en una persona inerte o menos activa que usted. El que no concurra con tus decisiones, no quiere decir que está errado o equivocado. El que no concurra con tu significado de “amor patrio”, no lo hace amar con menor intensidad la isla que usted alardea amar. El que no concurra con tu definición de “puertorriqueñidad”, no lo hace menos puertorriqueño que usted.

Por todo lo antes expuesto, y el camino que ha de venir, recurramos con el mismo ímpetu, algarabía, fogosidad y orgullo a construir una isla que sea admirada por todos, no tan solo en el deporte, las artes, o en los concursos de belleza, sino porque hay un pueblo que no tiembla a la hora de luchar y exigir sus derechos. Un pueblo que día a día busca mejorar sus condiciones sociales y calidad de vida. Un pueblo que combate la corrupción y no es cómplice del criminal. Un pueblo con espíritu de solidaridad, sensibilidad y respeto a las minorías. Eso sí es ser más puertorriqueño que aquel que dice: ¿Adióh y tú no eras estadista?

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Gabriel Martínez Rivera es estudiante de tercer año de la Escuela de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Puerto Rico.